Schneider 75mm QF Field Gun in Serbian Service

Schneider 75mm QF Field Gun in Serbian Service

Schneider 75mm QF Field Gun in Serbian Service

Here we see a French Schneider 75mm QF Field Gun in Serbian Service - the Serbian army started the First World War with nearly 300 of these guns.


Schneider 75mm QF Field Gun in Serbian Service - History

The 75mm field gun built by Saint-Chamond before and during WW1 had an unusual design history. The design was originally specified by the Mexican Army General Manuel Mondragon in 1890s. However, Mexico did not have the industrial capability or capacity to build numbers of field guns so the Mexican Govt. employed Compagnie des Forges et Acéries de la Marine et d'Homécourt (Saint-Chamond) to do the detail design and produce the gun. The St-Chamond field gun detail design was completed by a team headed by Lt.Col. Emile Rimailho, the Technical Director of Saint-Chamond. Rimailho had been a member of the team that designed the 75mm Mle 1897 field gun and had designed the 155mm Mle 1904 howitzer when he was employed by the State Arsenals. The 75mm St-Chamond design seems to have been completed about 1905/6 and perhaps 100 guns, although this number is uncertain, were built for the Mexican Army and delivered before 1910.

Saint-Chamond apparently acquired rights to the gun design and attempted, unsuccessfully, to sell it to various countries before WW1. Belgium tested a battery of Saint-Chamond guns before deciding to purchase 75mm Krupp export guns.

The 75mm St-Chamond light field gun was a conventional design for the time. The breech was a single motion interrupted screw similar to the Schneider breech. The elevation gear was a simple concentric jack located between the carriage frames just forward of the breech. The traverse gear was similar to other French guns in that the centre of the axle was threaded and the carriage moved across the axle by a worm gear with the spade at the end of the trail as the pivot point. The recoil/recuperation mechanism was a hydraulic recoil absorber with a pneumatic recuperator similar to the 75mm Mle 1897. Cartridge ammunition was used with both Shrapnel and HE projectiles. The Saint-Chamond gun was about 100kg lighter than the 75mm Mle 1897 with a slightly shorter barrel which gave a shorter max. range than the Mle 1897. The gun was towed by 6 horses with a limber containing 36 rounds of ammunition.

Data
Calibre75mm L/28.5
Muzzle Velocity513 m/sec
Weight of Gun (emplaced)1090kg
Weight of Gun (with limber)1770kg
Elevation-8° to +17°
Traverse
Max. Range8000m (theoretical)
6500m (practical)
Rate of Fire15 - 18 rounds/min
ProjectilesShrapnel 7.24kg
HE 5.5kg

The 75mm St-Chamond guns were delivered to Mexico before the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution of 1910-1920. This conflict is quite confusing and seems to have been a series of regional civil wars overlaid by regime changes of the central government. The St-Chamond guns served with a number of the warring factions.

The French Army ordered 40 batteries of St-Chamond guns in September 1914 and then cancelled the order in November 1914 since they thought that they would have sufficient 75mm guns. In May 1915 200 St-Chamond guns were ordered in "compensation" for the earlier cancellation. The guns were delivered in 1916. It is not known whether they were issued to operational units. The "Mle 1915" seems to be an informal designation, it is not known if the St_Chamond guns were officially accepted. The French order St-Chamond guns used the same ammunition as the 75mm Mle 1897 - it is not known whether this is true for the Mexican guns. Most, if not all, of the French order St-Chamond guns were fitted to the Char Saint-Chamond tank.

The Char Saint-Chamond was the second French tank to enter service. It was armed with a 75mm field gun, the heaviest tank gun in WW1. This armament was installed on the insistence of Gen. Estienne and had the unfortunate consequence of making the front overhang of the Saint-Chamond excessively long and limited the ability of the Char Saint-Chamond to cross trenches and negotiate bad ground. This problem was a consequence of the design of the traverse mechanism in French field guns 1 . The whole carriage was moved across the axle pivoted on the spade to achieve gun traverse. When the 75mm field guns were fitted into a tank the whole carriage had to be fitted as well.

There is a perception that Saint-Chamond somehow used their own 75mm gun without permission and the royalties for the gun went to Lt.Col. Rimailho. However, this is just a myth. The original schedule 2 agreed between Saint-Chamond and the French Army for the armament of the Saint-Chamond tank was that the tanks up to No.150 should have the 75mm St-Chamond gun, Nos. 151 to 211 would have the 75mm Schneider Mle 1912. The Schneider gun was never fitted because Schneider could not supply the 75mm guns. Since the first 48 Saint-Chamond tanks were unarmed (char caissons) there were enough St-Chamond guns to make up part of the shortfall - the rest of the planned Schneider gun tanks were armed with the 75mm Mle 1897. General Mourret decreed that all Saint-Chamond tanks from No.212 to 399 (the rest of the order) would have the 75mm Mle 1897.

The state of Israel was created by a vote in the UN in 1948. Immediately the surrounding Arab States declared war and attempted to invade and eliminate Israel. The new state of Israel acquired weapons wherever it could by whatever means. 32 Mexican St-Chamond guns were purchased by Israel from Mexico and saw service during the War of Independence. Unlike the 75mm Krupp guns Israel acquired from Switzerland the St-Chamond guns retained their wooden wheels throughout their service. In Israeli service they were nicknamed "Cucarachas" (Cockroaches). There are 3 surviving Saint-Chamond guns in Israeli museums.

Surviving St-Chamond guns

2 Saint-Chamond guns at Batei HaOsef (Israel Defense Forces History Museum), Tel Aviv


75 mm wz. 1897 field gun in Polish service

Note: this page is focused on the Polish service of the gun. You can read more about its development and design in Wikipedia article. Letter W indicates external links to other relevant Wikipedia articles.

Background

Polish wz.1897 gun on the move, before the war.
Above and below: Polish wz.1897 guns in the 1920s, in combat configuration, with caissons on the left. The crews wear old issue French helmets (withdrawn from most units during the 1930s).
[Polish Army Museum collection]
Polish wz.1897 guns with rubber tires on manoeuvres in 1937. Note a three-colour camouflage of motorized artillery. French motorized guns had different spoked wheel discs. A crew wears wz.1931 helmets. [Polish Army Museum collection]
Polish wz.1897 gun captured by the German, towed by PzKpfw-I A. Noteworthy are bullet marks on a shield.

French 75 mm field gun Mle 1897, designated in Poland as 75 mm armata wz. 1897 (1897 Pattern cannon), was one of most important artillery systems ever. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). Most modern at a time of its design, it remained in a frontline service until World War II. During and after World War I it was commissioned by many countries, including the USA and Great Britain.

The first Polish unit to use this gun was allied General Józef Haller's Blue Army W , created in France in 1917. In 1919 it had 171 such guns, in light artillery regiments of five divisions. After World War I, in 1919 the army returned to Poland, with its equipment.

Thanks to further deliveries from France in 1919, on 1 October 1920 Poland had 783 guns wz.1897, what made it by far the most numerous artillery piece at a time of the Polish-Soviet war W . After 1922 it was chosen as a standard gun for a light artillery, subsequently replacing other marks. In 1924-1925, 524 guns were acquired from France. It is not clear, if this number covers 108 pieces received from Romania, in exchange for 76.2mm wz.02 guns [4] . In 1931 there were 1255 guns wz.1897 in inventory.

Because of enough number of imported guns, 75 mm field guns were not produced in Poland, although Zakłady Starachowickie developed own similar prototypes of wz.31St and wz.38St guns (the second one with a split carriage). There were only carried refits of wz.1897 guns, and very limited modernization efforts. A small number of guns (apparently 12) were modified for motorized traction by fitting rubber tires Michelin DS in 1937 and were used in the pre-war 1st Motorized Artillery Regiment (some authors call these guns wz.97/37, but apparently it was not an official designation). Earlier, some guns were used in a motorized artillery on special "roller-skates" with four rubber tires. Shortly before the war it was planned to buy wheels and tractors in France and convert another 60 guns of 5 detachments, but it was not realized.

In late 1930s it was suggested to modify 75 mm guns by fitting optical sights of 37 mm wz.36 AT guns, in order to improve their ability of fighting tanks, but according to one source, only 8 guns were modified this way [4] (possibly motorized artillery ones). Rest of guns could only fight tanks with less precise direct artillery fire. There were available AP grenades, but in a very limited quantity (20 rounds per a battery in June 1939). On the other hand, HE grenades were usually enough to destroy or damage lightly armoured tanks of 1939.

1939 use

In June 1939, before World War II, there were 1374 guns wz.1897 available (153 in reserve), according to a report of General Miller. According to other sources, there were 1230 guns in the Army in August 1939 [1] (a difference probably comes mostly from not counting reserve guns). Average condition of barrels was estimated as 70% (7000 shots remaining).

75 mm wz.1897 guns were a mainstay of Light Artillery Regiments in Infantry Divisions. 30 regular divisions had full Light Artillery Regiment, existing during a peacetime, corresponding with a division's number (Nos. 1-30). Further 9 reserve divisions, mobilized during the war, could have incomplete artillery regiments due to problems with mobilization and transport of units (some detachments meant for artillery regiments of reserve divisions fought with other units eventually). Typical regiments had 24 guns, in two detachments (battalions), and the third detachment with 100 mm howitzers. Only 10 regiments had newer organization, with 12 guns and 24 howitzers. Each detachment (Polish: dywizjon, not to confuse with a division) had three four-gun batteries.

Wz.1897 guns were also an armament of 8 detachments of C-in-C reserve, with 12 guns each (Nos. 41, 48, 50, 58, 59, 64, 67, 81). 150 guns 75 mm (including some wz.02/26) remained in a general reserve [1] , part of them supplemented combat units or were used in combat in improvised units.

The guns with rubber tires were used in motorized batteries of Polish two motorized brigades - four guns in the 16th Motorized Artillery Detachment of the 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade (along with four 100 mm howitzers) and eight guns in the 2nd Motorised Artillery Detachment of the Warsaw Armoured-Motorised Brigade. They were towed by C4P and Citroën-Kegresse P17 halftrack tractors respectively.

A separate story are guns of the Land Coastal Defence W (Lądowa Obrona Wybrzeża, LOWyb), defending an area around Gdynia until 19 September 1939. Two platoons with two wz. 1897 guns each were assigned in the 1930s to two Naval Rifle Battalions (Nos. 1 and 2), enhanced to Naval Rifle Regiments during the mobilization. Seven guns wz.1897 were assigned in 1939 to the Naval Light Artillery Detachment, but their origin was different: they were former naval guns on pedestal mounts, from a Navy stock, fitted with standard land carriages and sights shortly before the war. Reportedly two more such guns were adapted during the campaign from the torpedo boat ORP Mazur W (from 8 September). Guns of the Naval Light Artillery Detachment (apart from these, four 105 mm guns) had no dedicated caissons nor own means of transport, and were hauled by few Citroën-Kegresse P17 halftracks from a searchlight company, trucks or even by a requisitioned agricultural tractor. Two more 75 mm naval guns on pedestal mounts were used by the Land Coastal Defence as railway batteries, and several more were used on stationary mounts in a defence of Hel W . It could be noted, that also two 76.2 mm wz.02 guns were used by the LOWyb units.

Specifications

Caliber: 75 mm
Maximum range: 11 200 m
Elevation:-11 +18°
Horizontal arc of fire:
Muzzle velocity: 542 m/s
Shell weight: 5.1 - 7.2 kg
Max. rate of fire: 12 rds/min
Crew: 6 (other source: 7)
Length (combat position): 4500 mm
Length with a limber: 8400 mm
Barrel length: 2721 mm (L/36)
Width: 1820 mm
Height: 1470 mm
Height of a line of fire: 930 mm
Wheel diameter: 1334 mm (wooden)
Combat weight: 1190 kg
Transport weight with a limber and ammo: 1938 kg
Barrel weight: 434 kg (without breech)

A protective shield of the gun was 8-mm thick. The gun was towed by six horses, using a limber. Another team of six horses towed a caisson with a limber. The crew travelled on limbers (three upon each), a gun's commander had own horse, and there was a horseman on one horse in each pair. According to a manual from 1921, the gun's crew was six (not including the commander and horsemen). There were 24 rounds carried in each limber and 72 in the caisson (all wz.1897 model). Limbers and caissons wz. 1910 of an ammunition supply column had 40 and 100 rounds respectively.

Ammunition used in Poland (without tracer, indicating and other special purpose rounds):

Round weightexplosive weight
HE grenade wz.1910 (steel)similar to wz.1915? kg
HE grenade wz.1915 (steel)5.225 kg (without fuze)0.78 kg
HE grenade wz.1917 (steel)5.970 kg (without fuze)0.66 kg
HE grenade wz.1918 (cast steel)6.375 kg (without fuze)0.435 kg
Shrapnell wz.1897 (steel)7.250 kg0.11 kg of black powder, 261 of 12-gram balls
AP grenade wz.1910 (steel)6.400 kg0.09 kg
Semi-AP grenade A.L. R/2 (steel)7.980 kg 0.435 kg

The ammunition was manufactured in France or Poland. In June 1939, Polish 75 mm ammunition stock was 1376 rounds per guns (including wz.02/26 guns, but without reserve guns), i.e. 23 calculated units of fire. In June 1939 there were 41 000 AP and SAP grenades in stock.

Sources:
1. Andrzej Konstankiewicz: "Broń strzelecka i sprzęt artyleryjski formacji polskich i Wojska Polskiego w latach 1914-1939", Lublin, 2003, ISBN 83-227-1944-2
2. Konrad Nowicki: "Artyleria polska oczami jej dowódcy", Poligon nr.2(37)/2013
3. Mariusz Skotnicki: "75 mm armata / cannon wz.1897", Model Detail Photo Monograph No.26, Rossagraph 2005
4. Krzysztof Szczegłow: "75 mm armata wz. 1897", Typy Broni i Uzbrojenia Nr. 123, Warsaw, 1988

You can mail me with questions or comments.

All photos and pictures remain the property of their owners. They are published in non-commercial educational and research purpose.
Text copyright to Michal Derela © 2013.


Type 90 75mm

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 02/24/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

The Type 90 was intended as a standardized 75mm field gun for the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) heading into World War 2 (1939-1945). It was adopted in 1930 and entered service in 1932 seeing some 786 units built in all. However, its numbers proved limited for the 75mm "Type 38" - the series the Type 90 was set to replace - continued in service until the Japanese surrender in 1945 due to the direction of the war, no longer in favor of the Japanese military. The Type 90 received its designation from the year of acceptance according to the Japanese calendar, this showing 2590 for the year 1930.

As with other artillery pieces of the period, the Type 90 exhibited two modes - travel and firing. Its tow carriage came into play for both as it was used to tow the weapon (via mover vehicle) or split as two "legs" and dug into the earth for firing. Transportation and in-the-field traversal adjustments were aided by way of the two-wheeled carriage using solid rubber tires. The firing crew resided behind a smallish armored shield for some protection against incoming fire and other battlefield dangers. A complete gunnery crew numbered six to eight personnel - from gunner to director, gun layer to ammunition handlers. The gun's action was manual while the breech was of a horizontal sliding block type. Recoil was contained through a hydropneumatic system and aided by a muzzle brake over the barrel. The gun mounting allowed for an elevation span of -8 to +43 degrees while traversal was limited to 25 degrees to either side - or else the entire gun carriage had to be turned by the crew. Travel weight was listed at 4,400lb while the system (in its firing form) displaced at 3,080lb.

The gun's ammunition consisted of a 14.5lb 75mm projectile. A trained gunnery crew could fire up to fifteen rounds in a 2 minute period for heavy sustained fire support. Each projectile exited the muzzle at a 2,240 feet per second velocity while maximum range was out to 16,360 yards. Sighting was achieved through a panoramic optical installation. The Type 90 was cleared to fire High-Explosive (HE), shrapnel (anti-personnel), Armor-Piercing (AP), smoke and illumination rounds as required - on par with other designs of the time.

Prior to the adoption of the Type 90, the Japanese Empire relied on several foreign types beginning with German Krupp-made guns. After World War 1 (1914-1918), these guns were no longer available from Germany and Japanese industry lacked the capabilities for design, development and mass production of an indigenous like-system. Artillery requirements were then fulfilled by the purchase of French-originated field guns before an indigenous design overtook them. The local design, influenced by the French Schneider Model 1927 itself, became the "Type 90" for the IJA.

On the whole, the Type 90 proved a capable battlefield system suitable for ranged warfare in the 1930s and 1940s. As such it was fielded during the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars as well as the Second Sino-Japanese War leading up to, and throughout, World War 2. It's HE shells proved potent against dug-in enemy infantry while AP shells proved proficient against enemy armor. Other shells played their part in offensive and defensive maneuvers of the IJA across the Pacific and Asia when in support. Its success as a tank-killing weapon went on to influence the main gun selected for the Type 3 "Chi-Nu" Medium Tank to counter the American M4 Sherman Medium Tank. However, the tank arrived in 1945 in just 144 examples and too late for combat service in World War 2.


Re: Schneider WWI guns

Post by Sturm78 » 15 Nov 2013, 11:34

Charlie wrote
The second image of the 155mm Schneider gun is a "Canon de 155 L modele 1877-1914 de Bange sur affut Schneider"

It's the barrel of an Mle 1877 De Bange gun on a Schneider carriage. About 120 of these guns were ordered and entered service in 1916

The shield of the gun of my image is not the same that the 155mm Mle 1877-14. Perhaps a prototype .
Also a 150mm SC 150 nº2 gun was offered to Spain in 1910 with a very similar shield


On the other hand, another howitzer from Schneider: 105mm Schneider OC nº5. Offered to Bulgaria and Romania but not adopted

Re: Schneider WWI guns

Post by CharlieC » 16 Nov 2013, 01:32

"Les Canons de la Victoire 1914-1918 Tomb 1" identifies the 155mm Schneider in the image as one of the 1910 prototypes built as a proposal for a Spanish order. The shield, as you note, is different, but the 1877/1914 De Bange Schneider gun was very similar to this prototype. The shields on the Mle 1877/1914 gun seem to have been quite variable. I've seen images of an abbreviated shield only about 30cm above the barrel as well as a shield that looks like a German "schirmlafette". Schneider used to recycle designs endlessly so a failed order for Spanish guns became the Mle 1877/1914. Other examples were the 220mm howitzer which started out as a 228mm howitzer for the Russians, which wasn't produced, became the Mortier de 220 Mle 1915 Schneider and the 152mm M10 howitzer, produced by Putilov under license, became the Canon de 155 C Mle 1915.


Greek Artillery 1941

Post by YAN » 28 Sep 2009, 18:03

Hi, I have made a list of Greek artillery from around the time it was attacked by the axis, please see below.

65mmL/20 M.1906 (Schneider) Mountain Gun = 5.500m
75mmL/15 M.1915 (Skoda) Mountain Gun = 7.000m
75mmL/31 M.1904 (Schneider) Field Gun = 5.500m
75mmL/30 M.1905 (Krupp) Field Gun = 6.860m
85mmL/35 M.1925 (Schneider) Field Gun = 15.000m
100mmL/24 M.1914/19 (Skoda) Field Howitzer = 10.000m
105mmL/11 M.1919/28 (Schneider) Field Howitzer = 8.000m
105mmL/28 M.1913 (Schneider) Field Gun = 12.700mm
155mmL/15 M.1917 (Schneider) Medium Howitzer = 11.000m

I think thats the lot, can any please see if there is any errors or any left out, I dont know what quantities the Greeks had of these weapons or if they were all horse drawn.

Re: Greek Artillery 1941

Post by The Edge » 29 Sep 2009, 12:53

This is for the start only - Greek Arty is my favourite subject - more data tomorrow!

Re: Greek Artillery 1941

Post by YAN » 29 Sep 2009, 16:24

Hello Edge, Thanks for your reply, yes I too find Balkan artillery very interesting, I have found some more stuff to look at.

AA:
88mm Flak 18 = 24
80mm Bofors = 4
37 Flak 36 = 54
20mm Flak 30 = 108 (Army + Navy)
13.2mm Hotchkiss = 108

AT:
37mm Pak 36 ATG = 24
14mm Boys ATR = 24

81mm Brandt M.1927/31 Mortars = 323

I dont know if it will match with your info, because its from a source I cant really trust.
Thanks Yan.

Re: Greek Artillery 1941

Post by The Edge » 30 Sep 2009, 09:23

Regarding the artillery of the Hellenic Army in WWII, the following systems were in service:

Heavy Howitzers Schneider Mle 1917 (155mm) 60
Heavy Howitzers Vickers-Armstrong 6’’ (152,4mm) 25
Heavy Howitzers Skoda M.14 (149mm) * 11

Heavy Guns De Bange 1878-1916 (120mm) 6
Heavy Guns Schneider M.1925/27 (105mm) 48
Heavy Guns Krupp (105mm) * 3
Heavy Guns Schneider M.1925/27 (85mm) 48

Mountain Howitzers Schneider Mle 1919 (105mm) 120
Mountain Howitzers Skoda M.1916 (105mm) * 7

Mountain Guns Schneider Mle 1919 (75mm) 192
Mountain Guns Schneider - Danglies M.1908 (75mm) 48
Mountain Guns Skoda M.15 (75mm) * 22
Mountain Guns Puteaux Mle 1906 (65mm) 110

Field Guns Schneider-Canet M.1908 (75mm) 56
Field Guns Schneider M.1907 (75mm) * 4 (Serbian)
Field Guns Schneider M.1904 (75mm) * 20 (Bulgarian)
Field Guns Krupp M.1904-1910 (75mm) * 128 (Turkish)

* Captured during the previous wars from Bulgarians & Turks.
In addition there were additional guns/cannons, captured from previous wars, that were not operational.


Regarding the antiaircraft and antitank artillery of the Hellenic Army, when Italy declared war on October 28, 1940 the following systems were in service:

A/A Artillery:
39 Krupp 88mm (24 Army + 15 Navy)
4 Bofors 80mm (Army)
6 Vickers 76mm (Air Force)
20 Terni . 40mm (Navy)
57 Rheinmetall 37mm (54 Army + 3 Navy)
108 Rheinmetall 20mm (Army + Navy)
32 Hotchkiss 13,2mm


Canon de 75, modèle 1897 captured by Turkish forces?

Post by Helen Bachaus » 20 May 2008, 03:07

I wonder if someone may know if the Turkish forces in WW1 ever captured the Canon de 75, modèle 1897 from French or other Entente forces using this weapon?

I was visiting the Canberra War Memorial annex at Mitchell where they restore wartime equipment for display and I came across a captured French 75 mm by the Turkish forces and subsequently recaptured by our own forces. I didn't have much time and will revisit later this year, but in the mean time can anyone assist. Its for a project that I'm working on at the moment for an army list for the Turkish forces using captured equipment.

I believe the Schneider-Cannet looks very similar and the Turkish forces used a number of these guns at Gallipoli (taken from the Serbians) during the battle at Lone-Pine from what I can recall.

Could the French forces have left artillery pieces at Gallipoli (in particular the French 75 mm) and the Turkish forces then used these guns in Palestine and other fronts.

I'd appreciate any assistance and thankyou in advance for your time.

Re: Canon de 75, modèle 1897 captured by Turkish forces?

Post by glaswegian » 20 May 2008, 10:17

well,
i remember seeing ane o these field guns standing as a gate guard o sherborne castle in Dorsetshire,the gun was marked as having been captured frae the Turks in 1915.probably gallipoli!,you know that the ottoman empire didnae hae an indigenous arms industry in the early years of the 20th century,so the they must hae either captured or boucht it .as far as i know these guns were tha best available in the 20th century

Re: Canon de 75, modèle 1897 captured by Turkish forces?

Post by nuyt » 20 May 2008, 20:06

Thanks for that info, though I cant give you an answer either. I am working on a list of Turksih/Ottoman artillery for the first half of the 20th century, but so far I havent seen this gun in service at all. That does not mean it wans not captured by them in limited numbers, possibly during the Balkan Wars. Or are we talking about the Schneider M12?
52 pieces 75mm L31 M12 field guns were in service (confiscated batch of Serbian order to France), see the second link I provide below. Could you provide a picture?

Meanwhile you are welcome to check and join these discussions:

Re: Canon de 75, modèle 1897 captured by Turkish forces?

Post by adolpheit » 21 May 2008, 17:45

Thanks for that info, though I cant give you an answer either. I am working on a list of Turksih/Ottoman artillery for the first half of the 20th century, but so far I havent seen this gun in service at all. That does not mean it wans not captured by them in limited numbers, possibly during the Balkan Wars. Or are we talking about the Schneider M12?
52 pieces 75mm L31 M12 field guns were in service (confiscated batch of Serbian order to France), see the second link I provide below. Could you provide a picture?

The guns seized by the Turks in 1912 at Salonika were Serbian Schneider 75mm M 1907 A guns (Schneider 75mm P.D. 6). They were assigned to the Chtaldzha Army and fired against the Bulgarian Army in 1913. At the outbreak of the WW1 it seems they were assigned to the II Turkish Army Corps, according with the Russian intelligence : 4th Div. - 5 batteries (the 4th art. rgt. was surely armed with Schneider guns), 5th Div. - 4 batteries, 6th Div. (4 batteries).
Serbia received Schneider 75mm M 1912 guns (Schneider 75mm P.D. 13 bis) only after the great retreat, in 1916, when the Serbian Army was rebuilt with French equipment. This gun had a shorter barrel (L/25.4 instead of L/31.4), being for the "horse artillery".
For the picture see (not St. Chamond, but Schneider, this is sure):
http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. . d#p1187184

Re: Canon de 75, modèle 1897 captured by Turkish forces?

Post by Helen Bachaus » 21 May 2008, 23:25

Thankyou so much for answering my query. I think Marco has hit the mark on this. I only have a photo of the barrel showing the muzzle guide. I thought this was only a trade mark on the French 75mm, however, now seeing this photo it now takes my recollections of seeing the field gun at the War Memorial annex as being this type. I'll still clarify this issue later this year when I get back to the war memorial annex.

Thankyou Marco for the link showing the artillery piece. This is a first for me seeing photos of this gun and not obscured by other impediments.

Nuyt, you have a great site and I thankyou. I do visit from time to time and its just fab seeing all those lovely photos and information supporting such.


Serbian Air Force history since formation [ edit | edit source ]

The idea to form air forces in the Serbian Army was first mentioned in the General Army Formation Act from 2 August 1893. This act envisioned that within each division of the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia be formed one air force balloon company.

Twenty years later, in 1912, a group of Kingdom of Serbia officers were sent abroad to school- to a Pilot Training Program in France. At the same time aircraft were purchased and by the Act of the Minister of War Marshal Radomir Putnik, on 24 September 1912 an Air Force Command was established in Niš. This places Serbia as one the first 15 states in the world to have had military air force at those times. A year later, during the siege of the town of Shkodra, Serbian Air Force had their baptism of fire. The first planes used in the Serbian military aviation was the Blériot XI and Farman HF.20.

Anti-aircraft field gun "Schneider" m-907,75mm, near Belgrade 21 July – 3 August 1915

The pilots soon applied the experience gained in the Balkan wars to World War I battles, thus becoming a worthy opponent to the stronger enemy forces. On 17 September 1915, according to the Julian calendar, that is 30 September in Gregorian calendar, Serbian Air Defense members shot down the first of many enemy airplanes over Kragujevac. This day was, by the Act of king Aleksandar I, proclaimed the Air Defense Artillery Division’s day. At the Thessaloniki front line, with the support of the Allied force, Serbian Air Forces were reorganized. First, Serbian-French joint escadrilles were formed, and by the end of 1916 a Nieuport division, while at the beginning and in mid-1918 the First and Second Serbian Fighter Escadrilles were formed.

The period between two world wars was marked by a significant growth of our Air Forces, accompanied by the production of modern and sophisticated aircraft, with then ongoing organizational-formation changes within the Air Force. As of 1924, 2 August, the Saint Elijah day was observed as the patron saint day of Serbian Air Forces, with the Saint Elijah the Lightning Bearer as a patron saint of military and other pilots of then existing Yugoslavian Kingdom.

During the April War in 1941, in 9 war days, 145 pilots died in air combats, while 576 members of the Air Force perished on ground. In that period 1416 combat flights were performed, downing 60 enemy aircraft. Especially, the 5th and 6th Fighter regiment pilots showed exceptional their bravery, and also bombers pilots, causing significant casualties to the enemy at airbases in Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria.

After World War II the Air Force underwent several developmental stages, the first major air force modernization being performed from 1953 to 1959. Aircraft made in the West are introduced thus broaching the era of jet aviation. With the forming of first helicopter escadrille in 1954 the chopper units were also incorporated within the Air Forces branch. At the beginning of 1960s supersonic fighters were introduced, followed by intensive growth of Serbian aviation industry in that period. A number of jet planes prototypes were constructed, which served as basis for the development of training fighters and fighter aircraft, such as ”Galeb” and “Jastreb”, “G-4” and “Orao” and the most advanced fighter aircraft MiG-29 was introduced in mid-1980s.

Since its establishment, the Air and Air Defense Forces has numbered tens of thousands of pilots, more than 5000 aircraft, and four types of missile launching mid-range systems, a number of small-range missile launching systems and 15 radar types.

Serbian Air force (Serbian Aviation – Srpska Avijatika) was the fifth ever air force founded in the world in 1912. Serbian Military Aviation was created when the aviation as vital part of the ground units was the question of the prestige under the military commands of the world. When we see what was Serbian position into the account, it was really hard to form the air force knowing that Serbia was very small and poor at the beginning of 20th century. The real reason why Serbia hurried to form the Aviation unit was the growing tension between the Kingdom of Serbia and Austria-Hungary. Also, it was the question of preparing the Balkan countries for the final driving out of Turkish forces from Europe. Serbia was not only aware of all these problems but was also forced to equip Serbian military with the aircraft and the balloons (of course with a great material renunciation). Serbia had purchased the first two balloons in 1909 from Augsburg the same place where almost 30 years later the Royal Yugoslav Air Force had purchased the Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-3 in 1937. The time of purchasing these balloons was the time of the growing crisis about the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austria-Hungary, which could have easily caused the war with this great military force. The first six military pilots were trained in France. They finished the course in the beginning of the First Balkan war. On 24 December 1912, the head of the military Minister Radomir Putnik signed the papers about forming the Aviation Command situated in Niš which included : the Aircraft squad which counted 11 military aircraft, the Balloon squad, the Pigeon post and the Base. This date is the date of forming the Military Aviation of Serbia and as well as the whole Yugoslavia. Its first combat experience, Serbian Aviation had experienced in March 1913 over Shkodra which was in the Central Force hands. On the first combat flight, sergeant-pilot Mihajlo Petrović was killed as the second victim of World Military Aviation. The first victim of military aviation was a Bulgarian pilot Topradzijev who was killed in 1912 when he was flying back from the reconnaissance mission over Edirne, Turkey.

Mihajlo Petrović was the first trained Serbian airplane pilot. He completed his training and exams at the famous Farman pilot school in France and was awarded the international FAI license No. 979 in June 1912. His Serbian pilot's license carried the number 1.

Serbian Air Force in the Balkan Wars and Shkodra operation [ edit | edit source ]

The First Balkan War broke out in October 1912. Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria waged it against the Ottoman Empire in a final attempt to liberate the last of the territories that the Turks still occupied in Europe. The Serbian army advanced south through Kosovo into Macedonia, then turned west toward the Adriatic coast, through central Albania. At the same time, the Montenegrin army advanced into Albania from the north and laid siege to the historic fortified city of Shkodra.

In February 1913, the Serbian Army High Command formed a separate Coastal (Primorski) Army Corps in order to assist the Montenegrin army on the Shkodra front. Air support for this formation was assigned to the newly established "Coastal Airplane Squad", the first Serbian air combat unit, with 3 airplanes and 4 pilots under the command of major Kosta Miletić.

Serbian Air Force Allied campaign during the First World War [ edit | edit source ]

Serbian army in Corfu, 1916–1918

World War I started with Austro-Hungarian declaration of war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. The S.A.F (Serbian Air Force) saw action from day one. At the beginning of World War I, Serbian pilots who were actually skilled and experienced from the Balkan Wars had succeeded to give the valuable information about the number, the movements, and the position of the enemy troops. They contributed to early Serbian victories in 1914 at Cer Mountain, Kolubara and Drina river. At the beginning of 1915, armed with machine guns and bombs, Serbian pilots succeeded to fight back the enemy by attacking their aircraft flying over the Serbian sovereign territory or by bombing the important targets in the background positions.

Serbia formed one of first truly powerful air defense units in Europe. This is due the massive onslaught of German and Austro-Hungarian aircraft. Serbian air defense units and air warning units were formed officially on 8 June 1915. The first airplane shot down by ground fire unit in World War I happened over skies of Serbia. During the German air attack on city of Kragujevac on 30 September 1915, air defense artillerist Radivoje "Raka" Lutovac – from regiment "Tanasko Rajić", shot his first hit, by his artillery modified gun, a Farman airplane with two crew members. Without any sophisticated cannon sights, he was aiming through the bore of his gun. This day is also a holiday of Serbian air defense. But the full control of the Serbian sky had been established in April 1915 when one well equipped and armed French squadron arrived as help from the allied forces to Serbian Aviation. Until the beginning of "Mekenzen" offensive in October 1915, French and Serbian pilots had succeeded to establish dominance in the air and to follow the enemy movements over the rivers Drina, Sava and Danube. They were also constantly bombing the hinder, the traffic and concentration of the enemy.

During the time of 1914–1915, the first Serbian-made planes were produced. They had been made mostly by craftsmen in various furniture factories. These early Serbian planes were used for training, since they were underpowered. While construction was Serbian, airplane motors were French-made. This aircraft design had the name 'PINGVIN', or 'Penguin class'. Only few of these were ever made. Although modest, this domestic design was inspiration for creating Serbian air industry after the First World War.

In the course of the Austro-Hungarian offensive and the retreating of the Serbian military, the French and Serbian pilots succeeded to stop the movements and intentions of the enemy. This information was very valuable to Serbian Military Command, who were retreating under the constant and strong pressure of the enemy who also was helped by the Bulgarian Army. The plan for retreating was that the soldiers together with the civilians would go through Albania and Montenegro, all the way to the Adriatic Sea. In the course of the retreat, the French and Serbian pilots did the first operation of carrying the injured soldiers with aircraft. The French-Serbian pilots had also organized the maintenance of the connection with the units retreating through Albanian coast to Durrës and Vlorë.

Evacuation of wounded Serbian soldiers by airplanes of the S.A.F and French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) represented first air-lift of injured soldiers in history.

Although Serbia was occupied in late 1915, by German, Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian armies, the Serbian government and armed force refused surrender. The entire Serbian army withdrew through Albania, into Greece, where they together with French and British forces created the Thessaloniki front.

Maurice Farman MF.11 biplane 1916 at Thessaloniki front line

Serbian Air mechanics on Farman MF.11, Corfu, March 1916

French pilots had left the Shkodra area in December 1915. When the last aircraft was destroyed, Serbian pilots together with the Serbian Army had crossed to Corfu Island. In the period of World War I, Serbian pilots had succeeded to show the importance of the military aviation to all ministers and to secure the place of aviation in its modernized version. The French squadron has improved the opinion about the Air Force because it has represented the secure collaborator in all phases of battle. In the second part of World War I on the Thessaloniki front line, the Air Force had played a big part for it was equipped and armored with modern weapons and modern aircraft. As the war industry grew really fast, the Serbian Aviation obtained modern aircraft. After the re-organization in Corfu, the Serbian Aviation squadron had been moved to Mikra not far away from the Thessaloniki. The material conditions of the Serbian Army caused that all available, trained, and capable aviation staff be referenced to five French squadrons. These squadrons were added to Serbia on the Allied Forces Conference in Paris. The Serbian Command wanted to have certain level of independence over its own Air Force and it secured the independence under Command of the Serbian squadron in Mikra. There was also a strong will for the formation of an independent Serbian Aviation Squadron. These five Serbian-French squadrons formed the "Serbian Aviation" which was working as an integral part with the ground troops. Allied forces squadrons such as British, Italian and Greek forces who actually had their own aviation units, also helped the formation. In the certain phases of World War I, the Central Force Air Forces succeeded to establish the dominance in the air, but at the end of World War I (especially at the time of breaking out the Thessaloniki's front line), allied forces commands had realized the value of this course, and the Serbian-French units, together with the allied forces Air Forces, had succeeded to beat the enemy in everything. The year 1918 in the summer was a year of the absolute control of the sky over this area by the allied forces. Successive and strong break up which Serbian Armies did as well as their break up in the River Vardar Valley, caused the Bulgarian capitulation when the Serbian Army after only 45 days had succeeded to move the enemy lines for 600 kilometers, to be the winner for the third time in this, Austria-Hungary was defeated. The German Army was very exhausted and lost its great supporter. They had been actually forced to sign the armistice. On the Thessaloniki's front Serbian Aviation did 3,000 combat flights, participated at all main operations and receipted the end of World War I in the associated unit which counted 60 modern aircraft. The staff of this unit consisted of 70 pilots, 40 reconnaissance pilots, and other aviation specialists. This aviation had staff and equipment with enormous experience.

Establishment of the Serbian-French air force cooperation in 1918 [ edit | edit source ]

Serbian aviation was a part of rebuilt Serbian Army, a part of the allied Eastern Army (consisted of French, Great Britain, Greece and Italian soldiers). Supreme commander of the eastern Army was a French general named Franshe D'Epere. The Air Force commanders were French officers and squadrons were staffed with French and Serbian personnel.

First Serbian squadron in 1918

By the order dated 17 January 1918, the two Serbian squadrons were to be formed and staffed with Serbian personnel. In April 1918 Prva Srpska Eskadrila (First Serbian Squadron) became operational with 12 Dorand AR type I A2 and 3 Nieuport XXIV C1 from French-Serbian composite Squadron AR 521 and commanded by French officer (Serb national) lieutenant Mihajlo Marinković. During May and June, the French-Serbian composite Squadron AR 525 Druga Srpska Eskadrila (Second Serbian Squadron) became operational. Captain Branko Vukosavljević was the first Serbian squadron commander who was appointed to lead to Prva Srpska Eskadrila (First Serbian Squadron) in August 1918.

Below is an order of squadrons attached to Serbian Army for the September offensive.

Commander: Major Du Perier De Larsan Order of battle

Prvi vazduhoplovni odsek (subordinated to I Serbian Army) Druga Srpska Eskadrila [Former AR 99/399/ 525 Squadron] 12 Dorand AR type I A2, 7 Nieuport XXIV C1, 5 Breguet 14 A2

Drugi vazduhoplovni odsek (subordinated to II Serbian Army) Prva Srpska Eskadrila [Former AR 82/382/521 Squadron] 6 Dorand AR type I A2, 3 Nieuport XXIV C1, 3 Breguet 14 A2

523 Escadrille [Former 87/387 Sq] 5 Breguet 14 A2, 11 SPAD S VII C1

No 502 Squadron 4 Dorand AR type I A2, 3 Nieuport XXIV C1, 3 Breguet 14

No 503 Squadron 4 Dorand AR type I A2, 3 Nieuport XXIV C1, 1 Breguet 14

Airfields: Vertekop, Lembet, Jenidže Vardar

Technical depot: Vertekop [previously in Mikra]

Dissolution of the Serbian Air Force after the WW1 [ edit | edit source ]

With the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of SHS), an Army Aviation Department was formed with Serbian and ex-Austro-Hungarian (Croatian and Slovenian) personnel. In 1923, a major initiative was launched to replace World War I era aircraft still in service with more modern designs. Contracts were placed abroad and with newly established local factories. Later in 1923 the Aviation Department was renamed the Aviation Command and placed directly under the control of the Ministarstvo vojske i mornarice (Ministry of Military and Navy). In 1930, the Aviation Command was renamed the Jugoslovensko Kraljevsko Ratno Vazduhoplovsto (JKRV) which translated is the Yugoslav Royal Air Force.


French 75mm weapons

Post by YAN » 14 Mar 2007, 18:13

Post by David Lehmann » 14 Mar 2007, 20:59

Here are most of the 75mm guns used in 1940 :

1) 75mm BS (Blockhaus Schneider) L/9.5
Used in FT17 BS
Theoretical rate of fire : 10-15 rpm
Telescopic sight : ?x (L. sight, field of view ?°)

Ammunition :
Obus explosif Mle1915 (HE)
Caliber : 75x241R mm
Weight of projectile : 5.550 kg (740g explosive)
V° = 220 m/s
equipped with the long RYG Mle1921 fuze for better anti-personal efficiency.

2) 75mm SA35 L/17.1
Renault B1 and B1bis hull gun
Theoretical rate of fire : 15 rpm (in a B1bis tank, RoF will be about 6 rpm with APHE and the 6 first HE shells, but 2-4 rpm probably with following HE shells, time to put the fuzes on the shells.)
Telescopic sight : two L.710 sights for the 75mm SA35 gun forming prismatic binocular sights (each sight with 3.5x magnification, field of view 11.15° and range ladders, adjustable drum up to 1600m for the HE shells and 1560m for the APHE shells).
Practical AT range : 800-1000m

Ammunition :
Obus de rupture Mle1910M (APHE)
Caliber : 75x241R mm
Weight of projectile : 6.400 kg (90g explosive)
Length of projectile : 239.5mm
V° = 475 m/s
Penetration : 40mm /30° at 400m
The APHE shell is intended to detonate once the armor has been penetrated. Because of the necessity for a hard point to APHE shells, the fuze is fitted into the base of the projectile. This fuze acts through inertia. As the shell passes up the barrel, either the shock of firing or the rapid rotation removes a safety device and arms the fuze. This fuze contains roughly a weight held by a spring. When the shell hits something hard, momentum throws the weight forward so it strikes the firing element of the fuze and thereby ignites the HE filler of the APHE shell.

Obus explosif Mle1915 (HE)
Caliber : 75x241R mm
Weight of projectile : 5.550 kg (740g explosive)
V° = 500 m/s
Equipped with the long RYG Mle1921 fuze for better anti-personal efficiency. This long fuze explains probably why there were only 6 armed shells in the B1bis and 6 longer emplacements for them in the ammunition racks.

The 75mm HE shells are able to destroy the armored cars, Panzer I and Panzer II and are very efficient at short range against the tracks and lower parts of the heavier tanks. The HE shell has a penetration of 17mm/30° even at 800m.

Accuracy of the 75mm SA35 gun :
10 shots at 400m : HxL = 30cm x 28cm


3) 75mm Mle1897 L/29.7
FCM-2C main gun
Theoretical rate of fire : 15 rpm
Telescopic sight : 2.5x (L. sight, field of view ?°)
Practical AT range : 800-1000m

Ammunition :
Obus de rupture Mle1910M (APHE)
caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 6.400 kg (90g explosive)
Length of projectile : 239.5mm
V° = 570 m/s
Penetration : 40mm /30° at 400m

Obus explosif Mle1915 (HE)
caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 5.550 kg (740g explosive)
V° = 505 m/s
Equipped with a long RYG 1921 fuze for better anti-personal efficiency.

1) Canon de 75mm (L/34.5) Mle1897
Type : field gun
Crew : 1 NCO + 6 men
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Length : 4.45m
Barrel length : L/34.5 (L/29.7 rifling)
Width : 1.51m
Weight in action : 1140 kg
Weight in travel : 1970 kg
Elevation : -11° to +20°
Traverse : 6°
Ready to fire in 5 minutes
Rate of fire : 15-18 rpm (up to 28 rpm in very intense fire during a short time)
Telescopic sight : ?x (L. sight, field of view ?°)

HE Shell
Maximum range : 9500 m (11100 m)
Projectile weight : 5.550 to 6.500 kg depending from different HE shells
V° : 575 m/s


2) 75mm L/34.5 Mle1897/33 (used in AT role)
Type : gun
Crew : 6 men + 1 NCO
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight in action : 1500 kg
Weight in travel : 1550 kg
Elevation : -6° to +50°
Traverse : 58°
Practical AT range : 800-1000m
Rate of fire : 15-18 rpm (up to 28 rpm in very intense fire during a short time)
Telescopic sight : ?x (L. sight, field of view ?°)

Ammunition :
Obus de rupture Mle1910M (APHE)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 6.400 kg (90g explosive)
Length of projectile : 239.5mm
V° = 580 m/s
Practical AT range : 800-1000m
Penetration : 71.5mm /0° at 100m and 61.5mm /0° at 500m

Obus perforant AL (Allongé Lefèvre) Mle 1916 (APHE)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 7.445 kg (350g explosive)
Length of projectile : 348mm
V° = 575 m/s
Practical AT range : 800m
Maximum range : 9500m
Penetration : 40mm /30° at 400m

Obus perforant AL (Allongé Lefèvre) Mle 1918 (APHE)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 7.320 kg (325g explosive)
Length of projectile : 297mm
V° = 575 m/s
Practical AT range : 800m
Maximum range : 9500m
Penetration : 40mm /30° at 400m

The APHE shell is intended to detonate once the armor has been penetrated. Because of the necessity for a hard point to APHE shells, the fuze is fitted into the base of the projectile. This fuze acts through inertia. As the shell passes up the barrel, either the shock of firing or the rapid rotation removes a safety device and arms the fuze. This fuze contains roughly a weight held by a spring. When the shell hits something hard, momentum throws the weight forward so it strikes the firing element of the fuze and thereby ignites the HE filler of the APHE shell.

Obus explosif Mle1900N (HE)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 5.400 kg (775g explosive)
Length of projectile : 280mm
V° = 575 m/s

Obus explosif Mle1915 (HE)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 5.315 kg (740g explosive)
Length of projectile : 277mm
V° = 575 m/s

Obus explosif Mle1917 (HE)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 6.125 kg (675g explosive)
Length of projectile : 303mm
V° = 577 m/s

Obus explosif Mle1918 (HE)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 6.650 kg (435g explosive)
Length of projectile : 292mm
V° = 577 m/s

Obus explosif FA Mle1929 AL (HE)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 6.960 kg (363g explosive)
Length of projectile : 320mm
V° = 590 m/s

Obus à balles (canister shell) "A" Mle1897
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 7.240 kg (110g explosive and 261x12g hardened lead bullets)
V° = 535 m/s

Obus à balles (canister shell) "M" Mle1897/1911
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 7.400 kg (explosive and 290x12g hardened lead bullets) (with 30/55 M13 fuze)
V° = 535 m/s

Obus à balles (canister shell) "A" Mle1897/1917
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 7.400 kg (113g explosive and 228x hardened lead bullets) (with 30/55 M13 fuze)
V° = 535 m/s

Obus à balles (canister shell) Mle1926
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 7.240 kg (with 24/31 M16 or 24/31A M18 fuze)
V° = 535 m/s

Boîte à mitraille (shrapnel shell) Mle1913
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 7.250 kg
Efficient up to 300m against infantry

Obus fumigène Mle1915 (smoke shell)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
Weight of projectile : 5.315 kg (white phosphorous)
V° = 550 m/s

Obus éclairant Mle1916 (illuminating shell)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
DE 22/31 M9 fuze
time of illumination : 40 seconds

Obus incendiaire Mle1916 type G à charge mélangée (mixed charge incendiary shell)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
This shell had an instant fuze and included 6 tarred incendiary charges, black powder and lead bullets. It was therefore a combined explosive, incendiary and anti-personal shell. The lead bullets were probably able to pierce oil, fuel etc. tanks before the incendiary charges ignite fire.

Obus incendiaire Mle1916 type G à six feux (incendiary shell)
Caliber : 75x350R mm
This shell included 6 “thermite” incendiary charges burning during about 50 seconds, magnesium powder and black powder.

In the blockhouses added to the observation means in the copulas and the gunsights there are generally two types of observation sights :
• type H : 1.2x magnification and field of view 49.50°
• type G : 3.5x magnification and field of view 11.70°

75mm Mle1929 (gun / howitzer)
Caliber : 75 mm
Barrel length : 2721mm
Elevation : -8° to +40°
Traverse : 45°
Telescopic sight : L.647
Rate of fire : 30 rpm (12 rpm in intensive fire)
Range : 12100m

75mm Mle1932 (à “pivot fictif”, with Nordenfeld breech) (gun / howitzer)
Caliber : 75 mm
Barrel length : 2421mm
Elevation : -8° to +40°
Traverse : 45°
Telescopic sight : L.656
Rate of fire : 30 rpm (12 rpm in intensive fire)
Range : 11900m

75mm Mle1932R (with Nordenfeld breech) (howitzer)
Caliber : 75 mm
Barrel length : 1555mm (Mle1905 barrel)
Elevation : -17° to +34°
Traverse : 45°
Telescopic sight : L.655
Rate of fire : 30 rpm (12 rpm in intensive fire)
Range : 9200m

75mm Mle1931 (mortar)
Caliber : 75 mm
Barrel length : 1371mm
Elevation : -3° to +35°
Traverse : 45°
Telescopic sight : L.634
Rate of fire : 30 rpm (12 rpm in intensive fire)
Range : 6000m

75mm Mle1933 (gun / howitzer)
Caliber : 75 mm
Barrel length : 2421mm
Elevation : -9° to +40°
Traverse : 45°
Telescopic sight : L.650
Rate of fire : 30 rpm (12 rpm in intensive fire)
Range : 11900m


b) 75mm guns in retractable TURRETS

75mm Mle1935 (x2) (gun / howitzer)
Caliber : 75 mm
Barrel length : 2421mm
Elevation : -2° to +40°
Traverse : 360°
Telescopic sight : ?
Rate of fire : 26 rpm in intensive fire
Range : 11900m

75mm Mle1932R (x2) (howitzer)
Caliber : 75 mm
Barrel length : 1555mm
Elevation : -5° to +35°
Traverse : 360°
Telescopic sight : L.655
Rate of fire : 26 rpm in intensive fire
Range : 9200m

75mm Mle1905R (x2) (gun / howitzer)
Caliber : 75 mm
Barrel length : 1555mm
Elevation : 0° to +30°
Traverse : 360°
Telescopic sight : ?
Rate of fire : 26 rpm in intensive fire
Range : 8200m

● Obus de rupture Mle1910M (APHE)
● Obus perforant AL (Allongé Lefèvre) Mle1916 (APHE)
● Obus perforant AL (Allongé Lefèvre) Mle1918 (APHE)

● Obus explosif Mle1900N (HE)
● Obus explosif Mle1915 (HE)
● Obus explosif Mle1917 (HE)
● Obus explosif Mle1918 (HE)
● Obus explosif FA Mle1929 AL (HE)

● Obus à balle "A" Mle1897 (canister)
● Obus à balle "M" Mle1897/1911 (canister)
● Obus à balle "A" Mle1897/1917 (canister)

● Obus fumigène Mle1915 (smoke shell)
● Obus éclairant Mle1916 (illuminating shell)
● Obus incendiaire Mle1916 type G (incendiary shell)

In the Maginot line the ammunition dotation for the 75mm guns/howitzers/mortars was theoretically of :
• 70% HE shells
• 27% canister and shrapnel shells
• 3% APHE shells
• various other shells (smoke, illuminating an incendiary) were probably mostly issued to field artillery

Canon de 75M Mle1928 Schneider
Caliber : 75x190R mm
Barrel length : 1480 mm (1060 mm rifling)
Weight in action : 660kg
Elevation : -11° to +40°
Traverse : 10°
Rate of fire : up to 28 rpm
Max Range : 9000 m
Crew : 1 NCO + 6 men
First introduced after 1908 under the Schneider designation "75 M.P.C. Maroc'. Variants of this gun were exported to Russia, Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro. Issued to French Army in 1919 to replace the 65mm mountain guns. Modified after 1919, the gun became the definite 75M Mle1928 gun. 156 of these guns were in service in the French alpine troops in May 1940. In German hands it became the 7.5cm GebK 237(f).

Canon CA 75mm PF Mle1915 (fixed on plateform)
Calibre : 75x350R mm
Barrel length : 2720 mm (2230 mm rifling)
Battle-station weight : 2219 kg
Rate of fire : 12 rpm
Muzzle velocity : 580 m/s (projectile of 6 kg)
Traverse : 360°
Elevation : 0° to +75°
Maximum range : 6500 m

Autocanon de 75mm Mle1913/34 (self-propelled)
Calibre : 75x350R mm
Barrel length : 2720 mm (2230 mm rifling)
Weight : 5880 kg
Rate of fire : 12 rpm
Muzzle velocity : 580 m/s (projectile of 6 kg)
Traverse : 237°
Elevation : 0° to +70°
Maximum range : 6500 m
In 1940 57 AA batteries were using the Autocanon de 75mm Mle1913/1934 . A total of 236 of these SPAAs were used on 10th May 1940. The Germans captured many and still used 45 of them in May 1944. Several of these SPAA guns were even sometimes used in direct AT role. There is an exemple on the Aa canal between Gravelines and Watten : 2 of these 75mm SPAA guns (402e RADCA) were defending the Saint-Folquin bridge on 24th May 1940. They were supporting the 2nd battalion of the 137e RI against an assault of the "Grossdeutschland" regiment supported by elements of the 1.PzD. They managed to destroy 3 German AFVs.

Canon CA 75mm Mle1917/34 (Schneider)
Caliber : 75x518R mm
Barrel length : 4000 mm (3250 mm rifling)
Battle-station weight : 4800 kg
Weight traveling : 4940 kg
Rate of fire : 20 rpm
Muzzle velocity : 700 m/s
Traverse : 360°
Elevation : 0° to +70°
Maximum range : 8000 m

Canon CA 75mm Mle1930
Calibre : 75x518R mm
Barrel length : 4000 mm (3250 mm rifling)
Battle-station weight : 3800 kg
Weight traveling : 4200 kg
Rate of fire : 20 rpm
Muzzle velocity : 700 m/s
Traverse : 360°
Elevation : -1° to +70°
Maximum range : 8000 m

Canon CA 75mm Mle1932
Caliber : 75x518R mm
Barrel length : 4050 mm (3250 mm rifling)
Battle-station weight : 3800 kg
Weight traveling : 5300 kg
Rate of fire : 25 rpm
Muzzle velocity : 700 m/s
Traverse : 360°
Elevation : -5° to +70°
Maximum range : 8000 m
The crew consisted in 9 men. Also adopted by Belgium under the name "75 mm ABS/FRC modèle 1936"

Canon CA 75mm Mle1933
Caliber : 75x518R mm
Barrel length : 4000 mm (3250 mm rifling)
Battle-station weight : 3730 kg
Weight traveling : 4200 kg
Rate of fire : 20 rpm
Muzzle velocity : 700 m/s
Traverse : 360°
Elevation : 0° to +75°
Maximum range : 8000 m

Canon CA 75mm Mle1939
Caliber : 75x518R mm
Barrel length : 4000 mm (3250 mm rifling)
Battle-station weight : 3250 kg
Rate of fire : 20 rpm
Muzzle velocity : 700 m/s
Traverse : 360°
Elevation : 0° to +90°
Maximum range : 8000 m

75mm AA guns available on April 30, 1939 in metropolitan France: 1695
Mobilized on May 10, 1940: 1607
Delivered in May / June 1940: 60


Schneider 75mm QF Field Gun in Serbian Service - History

75mm mle/1897 "French 75mm"

French 75mm mle/1897

The French 75mm mle/1897 has a Nordenfelt Eccentric Screw Breech making it capable of firing up to 24 rounds per minute. It has elevation and traversing mechanisms with handles for the gunner on the left hand side of the gun. Most importantly, it is fitted with a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, spade and firing stand to deploy under the wheels. This allows the gun to hold steady for the tremendous rate of fire without even having to re-lay the piece. The 75mm mle/97 was the first in any nation&rsquos military service to have these capabilities. In France, the mle/97 replaced the 80mm and 90mm de Bange pieces that somewhat resembled our collection&rsquos German 9cm. C/73. For France&rsquos potential enemies, the 75mm mle/97 served to spark immediate improvements in artillery. In Germany, the original 7,7cm C/1896 was re-designed with a hydo-spring recoil mechanism and re-designated 7,7cm C/1896 n/A. The older 7,7cm in our collection was one of these &ldquoRecalls&rdquo, where as, the newer 1917 dated 7,7cm was built from the start with these additions. Further, Germany pushed to develop heavy artillery with more rapid fire and modern recoil systems. The culmination of this was the 15cm. s.F.H. 1902. Our collection has two pieces representing this important advance in heavy howitzer technology. The French, once the 75mm mle/1897 was developed, wanted no other artillery. Their own 155mm mle/1904 Rimailho was never produced in large numbers. This ill fated decision being perfectly represented by a quote form a French General Staff representative speaking to the Budget Commission of the Chamber in 1909 &ldquo&hellipyou talk to us of heavy artillery. Thank God we have none. The strength of the French Army is in the lightness of its guns.&rdquo (de Gaulle, op. cit., p.217) The French saw the error of their logic in 1914 when German 15cm. s.F.H. series howitzers out ranged their light 75mms and saturated their positions with vastly greater fire effects. This, of course, resulted in a renewed interest in the French 155mm. By 1915, the French Army had begun to put together a balanced combination of the 75mm gun with the 155mm howitzer, like was already in place with the German Army, represented by the 7,7cm gun and the 15cm howitzer. What is needed is a very mobile gun that can quickly react to the needs of maneuver forces backed up with heavy pieces that can react with tremendous effect with scheduled fires or calls for fire to support maneuver. Today we can see this balance in our own forces with the direct fire guns of the Abrams and Bradley along with the heavy indirect fire of the 155mm howitzer and MLRS.

The First World War caught the US Artillery unprepared. Our 3 Inch M1902 and M1905 were in no way the equal of the modern German and French Artillery. We quickly adopted the &ldquoFrench 75&rdquo and the &ldquoSchneider mle/1915&rdquo. We absorbed the lessons of three years hard fought combat from the French and British and started off our part of the war with a good balance of artillery capability. The US memory does not recall this period when the 75mm mle/97 stood almost alone without the support of the heavy 155mm howitzer.

With these pieces, the US Artillery grappled with the issues of logistics with vast amounts of ammunition consumption, transport, maintenance of these technically advanced pieces, manufacture of recoil systems previously unknown in the US and, of course, supporting the maneuver forces while coordinating fires to their movements. These were all issues the US would continue to work through with the 75mm and 155mm all the way into World War II.

Rear view of the mle/1897 showing the Nordenfelt breech mechanism.

Above and Below: The mle/1897 showing the correct French 14 spoke wheels with typical French and American 2 Color Camouflage.

Above Left: The French M1918 Aiming Circle for the 75mm mle/97 in US service (Click onto photograph to see article)

Above Right: The French made sight for the 75mm mle/97 used in French and US service

Below: French 75mm mle/97 and the French manufactured limber

Below: French 75mm mle/97 and the French manufactured limber

Below: French 75mm mle/97 and the French manufactured limber

Below: French 75mm mle/97 and the French manufactured limber

Below: Model 1901 Sight & Sightmount for the 75mm mle/1897

Below: French Fuze Setter (Click onto photograph to see more images)


Landships II

Dear Friends, Contributors and Webmasters I thank you all for you did a wonderful job to present the equipment of the great war to the public. However, I'm a little disappointed for not seeing a section on the Ottoman artillery. I hope you shall add a section about the third (altough somewhat weak) great power of the central powers too.

You are of course right: this is missing. Partly, I think, because this is a difficult subject that requires special knowledge.

Anyone out there willing to chip in? What about you?

The Ottoman army fielded the 9cm c73 variant in substantial numbers. It's replacement, the Krupp 75mm commercial version of the c96 n/A equipped their first line divisions. Korps artillerie was represented by the 15cm c93 sFH, some 21cm Msr, and some L 15cm RKanone. They had a host of small mountain howitzers and guns. Some 10.5cm lFH had begun to arrive also when the war began. Their fortress artillerie was basic Krupp from the 80s. Additionally, the Asia Korps sprinkled their modest, but excellent artillerie around too. There were examples of new pieces from the Skoda 15cm M14, to th 13cm K. The Germans even sent a batterie of 7,7cm L FK L/35 (Franz.) to serve in the desert.

An interesting story reputes the Turks managed to high-jack a shipment of brand new Schneider 75mm guns in route to Serbia in 1912. There is some obvious truth to the story as a 1918 post-hostilities photo shows a number of these guns in a British captured weapons pool somewhere outside Jerusalem.

Thanks Jack! I've put your posting in the article on the Ottoman Army (uniforms), at least for now. Hope that's ok!

dear mr kempf and 28juni, I thank you both. I've never seen such a concise summary of turkish artillery ordenance before juni put this little paragraph. perhaps you may label a section on artillery page as "ottoman artillery" and then paste juni's ordnance list as links to the previously reviewed german and austro-hungarian field pieces. maybe only the old 9cm gun and 75 mm krupp shall be reviewed as separate entries.

I have also a question that I'm much too curious to learn. I have all the life-like/emhar 1/24 cannon models. I know the specific names and models of all except that "75mm world war I artillery piece" this frustrating model has no clue about its country of origin, producer and production year. perhaps great war modeling experts shall help me.

I apologise for not giving my name (and for not enrolling to the forum as member). it's just because of my laziness :) I will enroll ASAP.

emir "von" yener, the self-made aristocrat ), from Istanbul

I believe I am familiar with the Life'Like model artillery kit you reference. It is the USA 3inch Model 1902/05. Around the turn of the century US Ordnance experts were trying to design a modern QF field piece. (I frequently use the Brit terms QF= quick fire, and QL= quick load in artillerie discussions.)

The new German firm of Ehrhardt (later to become the monstrous Rheinmetall the largest single manufacturing/holding entity in all of Europe today) was contacted and their firm provided much of the design for the new field gun to include the "long recoil" patent, which the Americans honored via payment. ( For more on this recoil system, please see my brief on the French behavior with this patent in another tread.) The end result was the Germophile Model 1902 3inch field gun. Though it was never seen in WW1 Europe, it did see action with Pershing's 1916 Mexico Expedition.

Incidently, Ehrhardt is the same firm the British approached when they looked for a new field piece during the same time period.

juni thank you so much. you have cleared a great mystery for me. do you think this basically pretty model can be used as a base for a possible conversion to a turkish M03 75 mm QF gun ?


Watch the video: Canon de 75 modèle 1897